On Rational and Periodic Solutions of Stationary KdV Equations

Stationary solutions of higher order KdV equations play an important role for the study of the KdV equation itself. They give rise to the coefficients of the associated Lax pair $(P,L)$ for which $P$ and $L$ have an algebraic relationship (and are therefore called algebro-geometric). This paper gives a sufficient condition for rational and simply periodic functions which are bounded at infinity to be algebro-geometric as those potentials of $L$ for which $Ly=zy$ has only meromorphic solutions. It also gives a new elementary proof that this is a necessary condition for any meromorphic function to be algebro-geometric.

1991 Mathematics Subject Classification: 35Q53, 34A20, 58F07

Keywords and Phrases: KdV equation, algebro-geometric solutions of integrable systems, meromorphic solutions of linear differential equations

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